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The cell is the fundamental unit of life. It is the smallest structure of the body capable of performing all of the processes that define life Research in cell biology, biochemistry, and molecular biology has brought to light how molecules and processes allow cells to divide, grow, differentiate, and perform their essential functions. This basic knowledge of cell biology has led to practical discoveries about the mechanisms of cancer. Understanding the normal cell cycle processes and how they go wrong provides key information about the mechanisms that trigger cancer. Lack of controlling cell cycle is one of the causes for the development of cancer. Usually, some four to seven events are required for a normal cell to turn into a benign stage which at a later stage turns into invasive cancer. This session discusses more about cancer and cell biology.
Oncogenomics is a sub-field of genomics that characterizes cancer-associated genes. It focuses on genomic, epigenomic and transcript alterations in cancer. The goal of oncogenomics is to identify new oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes that may provide new insights into cancer diagnosis, predicting clinical outcome of cancers and new targets for cancer therapies. Understanding the underlying genetic mechanisms that drive cancer progression oncogenomics targets personalized cancer treatment. The success of targeted cancer therapies such as Gleevec, Herceptin and Avastin raised the hope for oncogenomics to elucidate new targets for cancer treatment. Identifying and targeting the mutations in individual patients lead to increased treatment efficacy. This session discusses more about oncogenomics.
A cancer biomarker is a substance or process that is indicative of the presence of cancer in the body. A biomarker is a molecule secreted by a tumor or a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer. Genetic, epigenetic, proteomic, glycomic, and imaging biomarkers can be used for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and epidemiology. Several biomarkers can be useful in cancer staging, prognosis and treatment. Caner biomarkers are useful in translating biomarker research into the clinical space. A number of gene and protein based biomarkers have already been used at some point in patient care deliveries of different cancers. Several biomarkers can be useful in cancer staging, prognosis and treatment. They can range from single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), chromosomal aberrations, and change in DNA copy number, microsatellite instability, promoter region methylation, or even high or low protein levels. This session discusses more about cancer biomarkers.
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death all over the world. Organ Specific Cancers are cancers named after based on the location of cancer in the body organ. There are different types of cancers based on location of cancer in the body organ. For instance Brain Cancer, Breast Cancer, Cervical Cancer, Head & Neck Cancer, Leukaemia, Lung Cancer, Ovarian Cancer, Paediatric Cancers, Prostate Cancer, Thyroid Cancer, Liver Cancer, Oral Cancer, Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML), Neuroblastoma, Stomach Cancer, Gastric Cancer, Kidney Cancer, Pancreatic Cancer, Ewing's Sarcoma, Endometrial Cancer, Esophageal Cancer, Gallbladder Cancer etc. These types of cancers come under the category of Organ Specific Cancers. Organ specific cancers provide further understanding about their diagnosis and treatment and its effects on individual patients. This session discusses more about Organ Specific Cancers and Effects.
Cancer Diagnosis involves tests and procedures to confirm the presence of disease and identify the correct tumor type, location, extent and stage of cancers. Sophisticated diagnostic technologies are used to pinpoint and evaluate tumors, and develop a personalized treatment plan. The diagnostics play an important role throughout the cancer treatment. Some of the cancer diagnostic tests include a thorough review of health history of the patient; physical examination, laboratory tests like blood, urine, etc.; biopsy, imaging tests like X-rays, PET/CT, MRI, Ultrasound tests, etc.; nuclear medicine scans such as bone scans, etc; endoscopy, and genetic tests. This session discusses more about the latest technologies including nanotechnology and robotics involved cancer diagnosis.
Surgical oncology focuses on issues involved in surgical management of tumors, especially cancerous tumors. Surgical Oncology has changed the face of cancer treatment procedures with great chances of success. Surgical Oncology includes collaboration with radiation and medical oncologists on the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy or with radiologists to plan surgery or optimize resection margins; collaboration with pathologists to ensure appropriate primary and adjuvant therapies such as tumor immunophenotyping and mutational analysis to optimize treatment and to quality assure surgery such as assessing the circumferential resection margins following TME; collaboration with geneticists in hereditary cancers to optimize treatment procedures. This session discusses more about surgical oncology.
Cancer is a genetic disease which is caused by certain changes in genes that control the way our cells function, how they grow and divide. Certain gene changes cause cells to evade normal growth controls and thus become cancerous. Genetic changes that promote cancer can be inherited from our parents if the changes are present in germ cells, which are the reproductive cells of the body eggs and sperm. Such changes called germline changes are found in every cell of the offspring. Genetic changes that occur after conception are called somatic or acquired changes. Cancer-causing genetic changes can also be acquired during one’s lifetime. This session discusses more about cancer genetics.
Clinical oncology deals with the management of all types of cancer. It collaborates with large multidisciplinary teams to focus on the treatment of cancers affecting particular parts of the body or systems. Clinical oncology assesses the relative merits of different treatments before presenting these to the patient so that an informed decision can be made. Clinical oncology uses both radiotherapy and systemic therapy, which include chemotherapy, hormone therapy and biological agents all of which are used to treat cancers. Clinical oncology determines which treatment to use by considering a range of factors including tumor types, the site of the tumor, the stage of the disease, and general health of the patient. This session discusses more about clinical oncology.
Cancer Nursing involves patient care deliveries for cancer patients in clinical settings, hospital settings or home settings. Cancer Nursing addresses a whole range of problems arising in the care and support of cancer patients such as prevention and early detection of cancers, taking care of and nursing geriatric and pediatric cancer patients, managing treatment intervention methods such as managing medical and surgical oncology, ambulatory care, nutritional support, psychosocial aspects of cancer, patient responses to all treatment modalities, and specific nursing interventions. This session discusses more about the latest trends and developments in cancer nursing profession that takes care of cancer patients ensuring complete cure and their well-being.
Cellular Oncology deals with basic and translational cancer research on cell and tissue level, including the developments in technical and bioinformatics, and clinical applications. Cellular Oncology includes a several fields like genome technology, micro-arrays and other high-throughput techniques, genomic instability, SNP, DNA methylation, signaling pathways, DNA organization, (sub)microscopic imaging, proteomics, bioinformatics, functional effects of genomics, drug design and development, molecular diagnostics and targeted cancer therapies, genotype-phenotype interactions. The goal is to translate the latest developments in these fields right from research laboratory into routine patient management. Cellular Oncology forms a platform for scientific information exchange between molecular biologists and geneticists, technical developers, pathologists, medical oncologists and other clinicians involved in the management of cancer patients. This session discusses more about cellular oncology.
Hematology Oncology deals with the blood cancers, and cancer tumors. Hematology Oncology includes diseases such as iron deficiency anemia, hemophilia, sickle cell disease, the thalassemias, leukemias and lymphomas, as well as cancers of other organs. Hematology Oncology deals with the study and management of blood cancers and tumors through thorough diagnosis, prevention and treatment of blood cancers and tumors and other blood diseases. Hematology Oncology holds much promise in the application of latest technologies such as lasers, nanotechnologies and robotics in the diagnosis and treatment interventions. This session discusses the role of Haematology Oncology in patient care deliveries to cancer patients such as timely care to cancer patients and blood disease patients including children and elderly and other patients of all age-groups.
Radiation Oncology or Radiotherapy is a branch of clinical medicine that uses ionizing radiation either alone or in combination with other treatment modalities, for the treatment of patients with malignant or benign diseases. Radiation Oncology daily practice is characterized by a significant technological component related to the design and delivery of radiotherapy. Surgical oncology focuses on issues involved in surgical management of tumors, especially cancerous tumors. Medical Oncology focuses on treatment using Chemotherapy, Immunotherapy, Hormonal Therapy and Targeted Therapy to treat cancers. Radiation Oncology, Surgical Oncology and Medical Oncology include responsibility for the diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and supportive care of the cancer patient, and form an integral part of the multidisciplinary management and investigations of patients. This session discusses more about Radiation, Surgical and Medical Oncology.
Interventional Oncology is a subfield of interventional radiology that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and cancer-related problems using targeted minimally invasive procedures performed under image guidance. Interventional oncology has developed as a separate pillar of modern oncology and it employs X-ray, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to help guide miniaturized instruments like biopsy needles, ablation electrodes, intravascular catheters to allow targeted and precise treatment of solid tumors located in various organs of the human body such as liver, kidneys, lungs, and bones. This session further discusses more about the latest developments in interventional oncology.
Tumor Imaging has come of age with recent technological developments. Researchers have determined a new way to analyze MRI image data to assess blood vessels in cancer tumors. The technique help identify patients who would benefit from certain therapies. The only ways to assess blood vessel architecture are to take a biopsy, a surgical procedure that can harm patients and often can't be repeated, a PET scanning, which provides limited information and exposes patients to a dose of radiation. The scientists developed and tested a new way of analyzing MRI data, which they termed Vessel Architectural Imaging (VAI). VAI involves a single MRI exam that takes less than 2 minutes and, in most cases, can safely be repeated many times. This session discusses more about the latest technologies available in tumor imaging.
Chemotherapy deals with the treatment of cancers with drugs. Chemotherapy stops the cancer cells to metastasize to other parts of the body away from the original tumor site. Chemotherapy has three main goals that of to cure, control and palliative. Chemotherapy is used to control the disease by shrinking tumors and stopping tumors from growing further. It is also used as palliative care that is to improve the quality of life in cases where drugs and control of cancers is not possible. This session discusses about the latest development in chemotherapy and the emerging trends in its therapeutic effects and palliative care.
Hormone therapy or hormonal therapy is the use of hormones in medical treatment. Hormonal Therapy for cancer is one of the major modalities of medical oncology, besides cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted therapy like biotherapeutics. It involves the manipulation of the endocrine system through exogenous or external administration of specific hormones, particularly steroid hormones, or drugs which inhibit the production or activity of such hormones. Steroid hormones are powerful drivers of gene expression in certain cancer cells changing the levels of activity of certain hormones which stops the growing of certain cancers or even undergo cell death. Surgical removal of endocrine organs, such as orchiectomy and oophorectomy can also be employed as a form of hormonal therapy. This session discusses more about hormonal therapy.
The cancer therapy depends also on the stage of cancer, the possible side effects, cost of cancer therapy, diagnostic tests, and other multidisciplinary treatment interventions. Before administering cancer therapy, consultation with patients and their families or well-wishers should be made about cancer therapies available. The therapies available for various types of cancers are surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, active surveillance, palliative care, financial constraints, and insurance covers etc. The patient has also an option for going in for a second or third opinion. This session discusses more about various options available for patients, the latest treatment interventions, the latest drugs available, the application of laser technology, and nanotechnology available etc.
Phototherapy or Light Therapy is referred to as heliotherapy and consists of exposure to daylight or to specific wavelengths of light using polychromatic polarized light, lasers, light-emitting diodes, fluorescent lamps, dichroic lamps or very bright, full-spectrum light. The light is administered for a prescribed amount of time and, in some cases, at a specific time of day. Phototherapy is associated with the treatment of skin disorders, chiefly psoriasis, acne vulgaris, eczema and neonatal jaundice. There is evidence that ultraviolet light therapy may be effective in helping treat certain kinds of skin cancer, and ultraviolet blood irradiation therapy is established for this application. Photodynamic therapy often with red light is used to treat certain superficial non-melanoma skin cancers. This session discusses more about phototherapy and its uses in treating various cancers
Proton Beam Therapy is an advanced form of radiotherapy used for the treatment of complex and hard-to-treat cancers in patients. It uses a high energy beam of protons rather than high energy X-rays to deliver a dose of radiotherapy. It directs the radiation treatment to precisely where it is needed with minimal damage to surrounding tissues. Proton beam radiation can be more precisely controlled. Doctors can prescribe higher doses of radiation with less impact on the health of surrounding tissue. In contrast to the X-rays commonly used in conventional radiation, protons enter the body at a low energy level and release most of their energy upon impact with the tumor, so there is no exit dose of radiation to healthy tissue. This session discusses more about proton beam therapy and its implications.
Cancer immunology is concerned with understanding the role of the immune system in the progression and development of cancer; and its application. Cancer Immunotherapy utilizes the immune system as a treatment for cancer. Cancer immune-surveillance and immuno-editing are based on protection against development of tumors in animal systems; and identification of targets for immune recognition of human cancer. Cancer Immunology and Vaccines hold promise in changing lives of people suffering from various types of cancers. Despite major advances in the field of vaccine technology and immunotherapy there is much headway in clinical trials. Vaccines exist with potent antitumor potential mount robust vaccine-specific immune responses. This session discusses various issues on Cancer Immunology & Vaccines.
Palliative Treatment relieves symptoms and improves quality of life in patients. The treatment is not limited to painkillers and anti sickness drugs.It also reduces or controls the side-effects of cancer treatments. Even in cases of cancers not curable palliative treatment might help cancer patients to live longer and comfortably. Palliative Therapy reduces symptoms. And also help reduce pain by shrinking a tumor and reducing pressure on nerves or surrounding tissues. Palliative cancer therapies are given together with other cancer treatments from the time of diagnosis to through treatment, survivorship, recurrent or advanced disease, and at the end of life. Cancer treatments include chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormone therapy, biological therapy, radiofrequency ablation, and cryotherapy. This session discusses more about palliative therapy and its treatment interventions.
Anti-cancer drug development is a major area of research. Tremendous resources are being invested in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer. Discovery and improvement of anticancer agents are the key focus of numerous pharmaceutical companies as well as non-profit government and non-government organizations. Monitoring of response to newer anti-cancer drugs has undergone an evolution from structural imaging modalities to targeting functional metabolic activity at cellular level to better defined responsive and non-responsive cancerous tissue. The most frequently used chemotherapy drugs have been identified empirically without any pre-existing knowledge regarding the molecular mechanism of action of the drugs. Scientists are exploring the impact of the molecular understanding of cancer on modern drug discovery, drug development and cancer therapy. This session discusses more about anti-cancer drug discovery and therapy.
Innovations in prevention and screening are a must. Lack of innovations in prevention and screening of cancer patients result in greater risk of mortality rates. Lack of educating healthcare personnel involved in the screening program is also an issue. HPV DNA testing and HPV vaccines are recent technological innovations that offer a potential solution to the continued negative impact of cervical cancer. HPV testing allows increased positive predictive value while also reducing costly and unnecessary overtreatment of low-grade abnormalities, and HPV vaccines offer the possibility of primary prevention of cervical cancer. This session discusses more about Innovations in prevention and screening of cancer patients.
Cancer Stem Cells play an important role in tumor formation, metastasis and cancer relapse. The recent progress in developing anti-cancer stem cell strategies based on improved understanding of Cancer Stem Cell properties and molecular features. Cancer Stem Cells are cancer cells that are found within tumors or blood cancers, which have the characteristics to that of normal stem cells giving rise to all cell types found in particular cancer samples. These novel therapeutic systems are designed with the aim of eradicating Cancer Stem Cells by targeting surface specific markers and altering signaling pathways or mechanisms involved in Cancer Stem Cells maintenance and drug resistance; and to disturb micro-environmental signals that sustain Cancer Stem Cells growth, with specific aim to impede its regeneration and cancer relapse. This session discusses more about cancer stem cells and its therapeutic interventions.
Drug Delivery & Drug Transplantation Techniques are sometimes called smart drug delivery. The system is based on a method that delivers a certain amount of a therapeutic agent for a prolonged period of time to a targeted diseased area within the body. It deals with the delivery system of drugs which include formulations, technologies, and systems for delivering pharmaceutical compound into the body of cancer patients to achieve the desired therapeutic effects. This helps maintain the required plasma and tissue drug levels in the body thereby preventing any damage to the healthy tissue via the drug. This session discusses more about drug delivery & drug transplantation techniques.